rhizophora apiculata uses

The synthesized nanoparticles were characterized for particle size and zeta potential. In South-East Asia 3 Rhizophora species occur: R. apiculata, R. mucronata Poiret and R. stylosa Griffith. in Papua New Guinea. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom. Molecules. Tomlinson, P.B., 1986. J. Cramer, Vaduz, Liechtenstein. The present study is designed to evaluate the antimicrobial, antioxidant and anticancer activities of Rhizophora apiculata . Accepted Name Plantae > Tracheophyta > Equisetopsida C. Agardh > Malpighiales Juss. The timber is suitable for making furniture. produces a tannin that can be used for tanning leather. Inflorescence axillary (in leaf scar below the leaf rosette), 2-flowered; peduncle thick, 0.5-1.5 cm long; bracteoles at the base of flower, cup-shaped, fleshy, crenulate. Allelochemical interaction of the mangrove species was speculated to play an important role in dominance in the harsh mangrove environment. The botany of mangroves. Rhizophora apiculata Taxonomy ID: 106626 (for references in articles please use NCBI:txid106626) current name Tamai, S. & Iampa, P., 1988. Forest Ecology and Management 17: 211-230. Rhizophora hypocotyls can be eaten after extraction of the tannin, but this is probably only of importance in times of famine. In Malaysia, stick thinning is practised. and. Epub 2015 Apr 9. The present study is designed to evaluate the antimicrobial, antioxidant and anticancer activities of Rhizophora apiculata. Large areas of formerly productive Rhizophora stands have been made unproductive in this way. The alignment of differential nucleotide positions of the SBE 2 gene from Rhizophora species of Kiribati and the Malay Peninsula are shown in Table 1. BMC Complement Altern Med. Clipboard, Search History, and several other advanced features are temporarily unavailable. 447 pp. Noordhoff-Kolff, Jakarta, Indonesia. eCollection 2020. J. Arnold Arbor. Branchlets swollen at the nodes, solid and pithy. ex Bercht. Wood anatomy of Rhizophoraceae. It is killed by frost and by extended periods of near-freezing temperatures. Other Uses The bark is an important local source of tannin Initially, the phenolic and flavonoid content was quantified in solvent extracts, and gallic acid and rutin were used as a control, respectively. Establishment and growth of mangrove seedlings in mangrove forests of southern Thailand. Felled trees are bucked into billets of about 1 m long, and sometimes debarked before they are transported out of the swamp forest. Planting programmes often coincide with the fruiting season. FTIR analysis of solvent extracts showed the presence of phenolic compounds at 3409-3430 cm-1 that actively involved in various applications including antioxidant and anticancer activities. Identification and revision of R. apiculata are largely based on morphological characteristics. Hypocotyl cylindrical to club-shaped, up to 40 cm × 1.2 cm before falling, often slightly curved, more or less blunt, smooth and shining, green tinged with red. 2013 Mar;11(2):149-57. doi: 10.1016/S1875-5364(13)60042-4. PubMed:Growth of a mangrove (Rhizophora apiculata) seedlings as influenced by GA3, light and salinity. Thailand and Indonesia adopt strip-felling, the Philippines and East Malaysia practise minimum diameter harvesting, while clear-felling has been traditionally carried out in Peninsular Malaysia. are sometimes attacked by a scolytid beetle (Poecilips fallax). Bai X, Lai T, Zhou T, Li Y, Li X, Zhang H. Molecules. Photo courtesy of Barry Clough. A stand of R. apiculata in southern Thailand had an annual leaf production of 7 t/ha and 20 t/ha of wood. Tannin obtained from the barks of Blume was further separated into condensed and hydrolysable tannins. The methanol extract effectively inhibited the growth and induces the apoptosis through ROS generation and sensitizes the mitochondrial membrane potential of A549 lung cancer cells. COVID-19 is an emerging, rapidly evolving situation. Mangrove and mangrove associates are abundant plants that grow throughout Indonesian shorelines that have high pharmaceutical and food … Chapman, V.J., 1976. 413 pp. A One-seeded fruits start to germinate when still hanging on the tree. The best way to regenerate a mangrove stand at the least cost is to encourage reproduction in the period before the final harvest by thinning and by minimizing damage to young plants during harvesting. Two-way ANOVA analysis showed that the highly significant effect of antioxidant activity depends on the concentration of extracts. 2015 Aug 18;15:287. doi: 10.1186/s12906-015-0820-3. Rhizophora forests are being heavily exploited for fuelwood and poles. Media in category "Rhizophora apiculata"The following 9 files are in this category, out of 9 total. The branched stilt roots weighted with stones serve as anchors.  |  If cut at least 20 cm above the stilt roots, regeneration is without problems. Thinning is important for good stand development. is one of the most important species in mangrove forest and often used for forest rehabilitation, particularly at Muara Teluk Naga Village, Tangerang District. Rhizophora apiculata is a least studied mangrove-based plant that has been used in the traditional medicine of Southeast Asia for its healing properties. Anticancer activity; Antioxidant activity; DNA nicking assay; Flavonoids; Rhizophora apiculata. Pores are small, circular, fairly numerous, straight, solitary and in short radial groups, mostly in pairs, and frequently with dark gummy deposits.  |  Tropical Ecology 21: 113-124. Vivipary is characteristic for Rhizophora species. In all parts of tropical Asia, R. apiculata is cultivated on a commercial scale for production of firewood and particularly charcoal, poles and tannin. Seedlings tend to be taller in shade and produce fewer roots. Rhizophora mucronata is a small to medium size evergreen tree growing to a height of about 20 to 25 metres (66 to 82 ft) on the banks of rivers. Semantic Scholar uses AI to extract papers important to this topic. Hou, D., 1958. & Chan, H.T., 1986. Get the latest public health information from CDC: https://www.coronavirus.gov. In sites where attempts at planting had previously failed due to pest problems, planting nursery-raised seedlings and transplanting of wildings proved successful. NIH Compliance with ethical standardsThe authors declare that there is no conflict of interest to disclose. pp. Singapore: bakau minyak, red-tree. Indonesia: bakau minyak (general), bako (Javanese), babakoan laut (Sundanese), Malaysia: bakau minyak, bakau tandok, bakau akik, Papua New Guinea: abia (Gulf Province), bahkweh (Northern Province), pana (Central Province), Philippines: bakauan (lalaki), uakatan (Tagalog), bakhau (Samar). This study used productivity models and above ground biomass to investigate productivity in different sites of MMFR. Mangrove-based Rhizophora apiculata was used to synthesize silver nanoparticles. On the fringes of the sea 10 or 15 metres (33 or 49 ft) is a more typical height. Srivastava, P.B.L., Keong, G.B. Description. 59:156-169. YieldsIn Malaysia, the 30-year rotation har- vested yield of green wood has been about 136– 299 mt/ha (61–133 t/ac). Rhizophora spp. It is a well-known fact that the generation of free radicals has been associated with oxidative stress. Thailand has prescribed the maintainance of a 10 m uncut strip along waterways to reduce the effects of waves and currents on regeneration. van Vliet, G.J.C.M., 1976. By using our services, you agree to our use of cookies. As thinning is a commercial operation, its timing, as well as the selection of tree species and stem diameter are influenced by market demand. Rhizophora apiculata Blume: Morphological, Chemical and DNA Barcoding Methods Gurudeeban Selvaraj1,2*, Satyavani Kaliamurthi1,2, Ramanathan Thirungnasambamdam1 Abstract— "Kandal" (Rhizophora apiculata Blume) is a medicinal mangrove plant used to treat pain, inflammation and reduce blood glucose level in Southeast coast of India. Flowers bisexual, sessile, yellow; calyx deeply 4-lobed, coriaceous, accrescent and reflexed in fruit, lobes ovate, 10-14 mm × 6-8 mm, concave, acute, brown-yellow to reddish, persistent; receptacle with a disk; petals 4, free, lanceolate, 8-11 mm × 1.5-2 mm, membranous, glabrous, early caducous; stamens mostly 12, sessile, anthers 6-7.5 mm long, acute, multi-loculate, opening with a large ventral valve; ovary semi-inferior, 2-celled, superior part enclosed by the disk, bluntly conical, 1.5-3.5 mm long; style 0.5-1 mm long, 2-lobed. 2020 Jul 29;15(7):e0236319. FTIR spectrum of different solvent extracts. Flowers are self-compatible and usually wind-pollinated. The poles are carried out of the swamp. In Vitro Antioxidant Activities of Phenols and Oleanolic Acid from Mango Peel and Their Cytotoxic Effect on A549 Cell Line. Rhizophora apiculata. Agroforestry Uses: A part of the mangrove swamps, the tree helps to protect inland areas from the effects of the ocean, including stabilizing the shore line and giving protection from strong winds and storms. USA.gov. Chin J Nat Med. Total aboveground dry matter has been estimated to be 160-190 t/ha in 15-year-old stands in Thailand and 257 t/ha in a 28-year-old stand in Peninsular Malaysia. Eventually, the seedling falls from the fruit, floats with the high tide and establishes if it reaches a suitable site. The ferns Acrostichum aureum L. and A. speciosum Willd. R. apiculata is commonly found in most mangrove swamps in tropical Asia, from the delta of the Indus in Pakistan to Vietnam and Hainan. The genus Rhizophora contains more species of mangrove than any other. In Vietnam, annual wood production is about 60 000 t. The energy value of the stems, branches and prop roots is 15 000-19 000 kJ/kg, of charcoal 32 200 kJ/kg. Uprooting the ferns manually with iron bars or spraying with a herbicide can solve the problem, unless the inundation regime has changed. Few production statistics from natural or planted stands are available. It occurs throughout the Malesian region and reaches southwards to the Tropic of Capricorn in Queensland, and eastwards as far as New Caledonia and Ponape (Micronesia). Rhizophora in Australasia - some clarification of taxonomy and distribution. The bark provides a medicine against dysentery. It grows gregariously in swamps flooded by normal high tide, on deep soft mud of estuaries, often consolidated and sheltered from surf and currents by pioneer species of Avicennia L. and Sonneratia L. R. apiculata avoids hard soils and develops well in per-humid regions where it can form almost pure stands, sometimes in association with Bruguiera spp. Get the latest research from NIH: https://www.nih.gov/coronavirus. They can be distinguished in the field by some easily observed characters: bark grey, almost smooth, with vertical fissures in R. apiculata; in R. mucronata the bark is nearly black or reddish, rough or sometimes scaly. Rhizophora apiculata has been exported from the Philippines to various parts of the world for utilization in the textile industry and extracts of stilt roots exhibited mosquito larvicidal activity. Seedlings may retain their viability for several months. Antioxidant potential, total phenolic and total flavonoid contents of Rhododendron anthopogonoides and its protective effect on hypoxia-induced injury in PC12 cells. In vitro antioxidant and anti-cholinesterase activities of Rhizophora mucronata. The system of final harvesting of trees for fuelwood varies between countries. R. apiculata is slightly more common than R. mucronata to which it is closely related. Foliage and soil nutrients in Rhizophora apiculata Bl. The in vitro antioxidant activity of solvent extracts showed excellent antioxidant potential, about 84% of DPPH free-radical scavenging, 76% of hydrogen peroxide, 82% of hydroxyl radical scavenging, and 80% of reducing power. It is unlikely that any substantial germplasm collections of R. apiculata are being maintained. The DNA protection efficiency of extracts against oxidative damage was confirmed by DNA nicking assay using bacterial DNA. Shows protecting the mitochondrial DNA damage of, Methanolic extracts induces the apoptosis in A549 cells and confirmed by AO/EB staining (. In recent years it has been extensively harvested for production of wood chips in East Malaysia and Indonesia. Tropical Ecology 28: 274-288. See this image and copyright information in PMC. HHS After extraction of the tannins, the ash mainly consists of calcium carbonate (70%) and lime (18%) and can be used as fertilizer. This study assessed the Growth rings and parenchyma are indistinct. Ecological Research 3: 227-238. Background: Cigarette smoke is free radical that causing some pathological conditions such as inflammation, proteolysis, and oxidative stress.In previous studies, mangrove (Rhizophora apiculata) bark extract showed the potential effect as an antioxidant. Recently, they have also been extensively harvested for woodchips or converted for agricultural and aquacultural purposes.  |  This site needs JavaScript to work properly. Srivastava, P.B.L., Majid, N.M. & Shariff, A.H., 1980. Rhizophora apiculata Bl. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0236319. Rhizophora apiculata and Acrostichum aureum are a common mangrove species in Malaysia. Leaf samples in the Matang Mangrove Forest which consists of almost pure stands of R. apiculata contain per 100 g dry matter: N 0.4-1 g, P 0.1 g, K 0.9-1.2 g, Ca 1.1-2.0 g, Mg 0.4-0.8 g, Na 1.6-1.9 g. The quantity of tannin in the bark is very variable, 8-40% in air-dried bark. Judging by the greatest volume production of firewood, a 40-year rotation is preferable. Rhizophora apiculata is distinguished from R. × lamarckii and R. × annamalai plus other IWP species by swollen (wider than long), corky br own bracts, one inflorescence Mangrove vegetation. Naz R, Roberts TH, Bano A, Nosheen A, Yasmin H, Hassan MN, Keyani R, Ullah S, Khan W, Anwar Z. PLoS One. The stem of R. apiculata is upright and cylindrical in closed forest, but plants develop a straggling or semi-prostrate habit in unfavourable sites. R. stylosa has broadly elliptical leaf blades, up to 12 cm × 7 cm, flowers with styles 4-6 mm long and the hypocotyl up to 30 cm long. have been reported to be the major pests of newly planted propagules. Further, antimicrobial … Read "Growth and water use of the mangroves Rhizophora apiculata and R. stylosa in response to salinity and humidity under ambient and elevated concentrations of atmospheric CO 2, Plant Cell & Environment" on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips. Find NCBI SARS-CoV-2 literature, sequence, and clinical content: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sars-cov-2/. Estimates of annual litterfall vary from 6-11.5 t/ha. Rhizophoraceae. A few specimens have been collected with characters intermediate between R. apiculata, R. mucronata and R. stylosa in western Malesia and western New Guinea. Litterfall varies with stand vigour and age. Rhizophora apiculata, as well as Rhizophora mucronata, is used to make charcoal in the charcoal kilns of Kuala Sepetang in Perak, Malaysia. Insects have occasionally been observed foraging for pollen. Total phenolic, total flavonoid content, and antioxidant capacity of the leaves of Meyna spinosa Roxb., an Indian medicinal plant. Evergreen tree, up to over 30 m tall and with trunk up to 50 cm in diameter, generally much smaller in exploited forests; bole 10-12 m; stem supported by numerous, lateral, much branched stilt roots; aerial roots sometimes develop from the lower branches; taproot usually abortive; branching primarily sympodial. This process involves selecting a well-formed tree and felling all pole-sized trees around it within a radius drawn by a stick 1.2-1.8 m long. Leiden Botanical Series 3: 20-75. According to [6], Rhizophora apiculata is a species of plant in the Rhizophoraceae family. generated in the process of charcoal making has the potential to be used as antifungal agent especia Rhizophora apiculata pyroligneous acid Rhizophora apiculata pyroligneous acid which is a crude condensate produced from the distillation of smoke lly to treat candidal infections. PubMed:Antiviral properties of a mangrove plant, Rhizophora apiculata Blume, against human immunodeficiency virus. Please enable it to take advantage of the complete set of features! There are no known breeding programmes. The woods of Rhizophora species are primarily utilized for firewood and for making charcoal. 2012 Sep 6;17(9):10675-82. doi: 10.3390/molecules170910675. It does not occur in fresh water swamps. The sapwood is light yellow, 3-5 cm thick, and very distinct from the heartwood which is reddish-brown and darkens with age. The bark is rich in tannin, used for tanning leather and to toughen and dye fishing lines, ropes and nets. Occasionally, bagworms and larvae of the moth Strelote lipara cause localized defoliation of trees and seedlings. In practice, thinning is irregular, incomplete and selective, and poorly accessible stands are often neglected. Long-term, multiple-use management plans have to be developed and implemented to ensure sustainable use of the remaining resource. Burma (Myanmar): pyoo. Taken together, the results showed that the solvent extracts of R. apiculata could be potential antioxidant and anticancer agents. Rhizophora apiculata Blume Lim Sheh Hong, Darah Ibrahim, Jain Kassim and Suraya Sulaiman A research was conducted to study the anticandidal compound of tannin extracted from the barks of a mangrove tree, Rhizophora apiculata Blume. Cookies help us deliver our services. With the opening of the canopy, the ferns may form up to 4 m tall, dense, continuous thickets, making it impossible for propagules of Rhizophora to enter the area. Average annual increase in diameter over a 30-year period in Matang, Malaysia, was 0.32 cm. GC-MS analysis, antimicrobial, antioxidant, antilipoxygenase and cytotoxic activities of Jacaranda mimosifolia methanol leaf extracts and fractions. Production and international trade In all parts of tropical Asia, R. apiculata is cultivated on a commercial scale for production of firewood and particularly charcoal, poles and tannin. Derris trifoliata Loureiro can also be a serious strangling weed. a Butanol, b chloroform, c ethanol, d…, GCMS analysis of methanol extracts a showed the presence of hexadecanoic acid, oleic…, Antioxidant activity of R. apiculata solvent extracts at different concentration. 5. a DPPH activity,…, Shows protecting the mitochondrial DNA damage of S. aureus using DNA nicking assay.…, Cytotoxic activity of methanol extract a on lung cancer cells (A549) and normal…, Methanolic extracts induces the apoptosis…, Methanolic extracts induces the apoptosis in A549 cells and confirmed by AO/EB staining…, NLM More intensive site preparation is required where flooding is limited due to large numbers of crab mounds and where there is severe infestation of Acrostychum ferns. Mature propagules that remain viable for 4-5 months are gathered from the forest floor. PubMed:Distribution and accumulation of ultraviolet-radiation-absorbing compounds in leaves of tropical mangroves. Bark grey, almost smooth or with vertical fissures. In: van Steenis, C.G.G.J. Rhizophora apiculata Blume. Propagules of Rhizophora spp. Check other web resources for Rhizophora apiculata Blume : PLANTS: USDA-NRCS Database of Plants of the United States and its Territories ; In the absence of hurricanes and chain saws, individual trees may reach 40m or more. Rhizophora hypocotyls can be eaten after extraction of the tannin, but this is probably only of importance in times of famine. Pharm Biol. The main agroforestry uses from this species are soil stabilization, coastal protection, wildlife/marine habitat for marine fauna and also as timber products which are fuelwood, charcoal, dyes, and traditional medicines [7];[8]. The bark, according to some analyses, contains large quantities of pentosans and furfurol. The ash content is about 1 g per 100 g wood of the stem and prop roots, and 2 g in branch wood. Activity-guided isolation of antioxidant compounds from Rhizophora apiculata. Wildings are readily available, as natural regeneration is often profuse. 2018 Jun 8;23(6):1395. doi: 10.3390/molecules23061395. The tannin of Rhizophora is associated with a substance which darkens gradually; it is used as a deep brown or black dye. 2016;54(1):118-29. doi: 10.3109/13880209.2015.1017886. 448-457. The bark of Rhizophora spp. Current rotations vary from 15 years (in firewood plantations in Thailand) to 20-30 years, but may be even shorter. Ninety Rhizophora apiculata leaf samples were collected from different compartments (18, 31, 71, 74, 42 and 55) based on tree age and management. stands. Felling of R. apiculata for poles is essentially a thinning operation in which straight pole-sized individuals are cut. R. apiculata is the most common mangrove species. may occur throughout South-East Asia as a low, tufted ground cover under the canopy. Damaged young trees are capable of recovering by sprouting from dormant buds and bending upwards to form another erect stem. Rhizophora apiculata is mostly preferred for replanting programmes at mangrove sites in Southeast Asia due to its multitude of uses. R. apiculata is the preferred species in replanting programmes in most mangrove regions in South-East Asia. Abstract— "Kandal" (Rhizophora apiculata Blume) is a medicinal mangrove plant used to treat pain, inflammation and reduce blood glucose level in Southeast coast of India. The root protrudes from the fruit, producing a green, spindle-shaped rod (hypocotyl) of up to 40 cm long. The present study is designed to evaluate the antimicrobial, antioxidant and anticancer activities of Rhizophora apiculata.Initially, the phenolic and flavonoid content was quantified in solvent extracts, and gallic acid and rutin were used as a control, respectively. Leaves decussate, rosette-like at the end of twigs; stipules lanceolate, 4-8 cm long, conspicuous, caducous; petiole 1.5-3 cm long, reddish; blade entire, elliptical-oblong to sublanceolate, 7-18 cm × 3-8 cm, leathery, green and shiny, apex acute to apiculate, base cuneate, veins distinct above, obscure beneath, glabrous with minute, scattered black corky warts on the lower surface, visible on older or dried leaves. or R. mucronata. In large concessions of 2000-4000 ha for wood chipping in Sabah, a diameter limit of 10.2 cm is used, provided that 100 seed trees per ha are left. Growth and water use of the mangroves. Natural regeneration is often good, provided sufficient seed trees are left after harvesting. Keywords: Growth and water use of the mangroves Rhizophora apiculata and R. stylosa in response to salinity and humidity under ambient and elevated concentrations of atmospheric CO 2. Minimum diameter for charcoal production varies from 20.5 cm in Sabah to 4 cm in Vietnam. The tallest trees are closest to … The nanoparticles were tested for toxicity against MG-63 cells. The wood of R. apiculata is hard, strong and heavy with an air-dry density of 960-1170 kg/m3. (Editor): Flora Malesiana Series I, Vol. Putz, F.E. Inflorescence in R. mucronata longer, forked 2 or 3 times, with more numerous flowers; hypocotyl longer (35-65(-90) cm). In Sri Lanka, Cerebera manghas is used in making masks for many traditional cultural activities. In Peninsular Malaysia it takes 35 years for R. apiculata to reach a stem diameter of 19 cm at breast height. Main productsTimber, fuelwood, charcoal, dyes, and traditional medicine. R. apiculata, being among the most easily regenerated and widely planted species, will play an important role in those sustainably managed systems. In some plantations, long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascularis) and grapsid crabs (Sesarma spp.) Their tangled prop root systems – illustrated in the header photo – are the “trademark” associated with all mangroves by most people (if they have heard … Additional planting and planting in denuded areas mostly succeeds well, provided the ecological conditions are suitable. Presence of phenols and flavonoids of R. apiculata was analysed using gallic acid…, Antimicrobial activity of solvent extracts…, Antimicrobial activity of solvent extracts using agar-well diffusion method ( a ) and…, FTIR spectrum of different solvent extracts. Rays are numerous, straight, forming conspicuous silvery grains, narrower than the pores, and visible to the naked eye. For biomass calculation, tree height and diameter were measured in plot of 10m x 10m in compartment 18, 31, 71, 74 and 67. Three thinnings are prescribed in Matang, Malaysia (at 15, 20, and 25 years of age), one thinning in Indonesia. Fruit an ovoid or inversely pear-shaped berry, 2-3.5 cm long, rather rough, brown. In nurseries shade is neither advantageous nor harmful. Large concessions in Indonesia require felling of trees down to a stem diameter of 7 cm in 50 m wide strips interspaced with 20 m undisturbed strips in a proposed 20-year rotation. The planting procedure is simple, involving inserting the propagules vertically into the muddy soil along predetermined lines and spacings. Poles are used for piling and construction purposes, and as fishing stakes. The wood of R. apiculata can be split easily and has a high energy value, making it in great demand as firewood and for making charcoal. Tree growth, dynamics, and productivity in a mature mangrove forest in Malaysia. Established in 1964, the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species has evolved to become the world’s most comprehensive information source on the global conservation status of animal, fungi and plant species. Rhizophora mucronata is used for the treatment of inflammation diarrhea, and angina disorders by people of India and Burma. Role of Acrostichum species in natural regeneration of Rhizophora species in Malaysia. 2017 Ecophysiological responses of young mangrove species Rhizophora apiculata (Blume) to … Rhizophora apiculata is called ‘bakhaw lalaki,’ in the Philippines, "Thakafathi ތަކަފަތި" in the Maldives, 'Đước' in Vietnam, Garjan in India, as well as other vernacular names. & Muktar, A., 1987. Further, antimicrobial and minimal inhibitory activities of different solvent extracts were assessed against human clinical pathogenic bacteria, and the results showed that butanol and methanol extract has potential antimicrobial activity. Main agroforestry usesSoil stabilization, coastal protection, wildlife/marine habitat for marine fauna. Initially, the phenolic and flavonoid content was quantified in solvent extracts, and gallic acid and rutin were used as a control, respectively. National Center for Biotechnology Information, Unable to load your collection due to an error, Unable to load your delegates due to an error, Antimicrobial activity of solvent extracts using agar-well diffusion method (.

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